English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



“嫦娥”奔月的“煩惱” 太空中存在的“腐蝕”問題

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-23  【字號:     】  

  浩瀚無垠的宇宙中蘊藏著許多未知的奧秘,它仿佛擁有著巨大的魔力,吸引著人類不斷探索。月球,是人類太空探險的第一步。但由于潮汐鎖定現象,月球圍繞地球的公轉周期與其自轉周期相同,導致人類在地球上始終只能觀測到月球的“正面”。因此,多年以來,人類對月球背面的了解非常有限。直到2019年1月3日,嫦娥四號探測器自主著陸月球背面的馮·卡門撞擊坑內,實現人類首次月背軟著陸,并傳回第一張月球背面的近距離影像。

  但“嫦娥”的奔月之旅其實并不輕松,甚至可謂是困難重重。其中,太空中材料的腐蝕就是令科學家們比較頭疼的問題。

  說到腐蝕,大家可能并不陌生,因為在我們生活中,它每時每刻都在發生。例如:廚房鐵鍋的生銹,碳酸飲料對牙齒的腐蝕,街道護欄的風化開裂等等。可以說,腐蝕無時無刻不在影響著我們的生活。但有人可能會問,太空既然是高真空環境、沒有水的存在,航天器應該不會像地球上那樣腐蝕吧?但令人意想不到的是,與“溫順”的地球環境相比,真實的太空對航天器的“外衣”甚至威脅更大。

  舉一個真實的例子,“和平號”空間站作為美俄國際空間站合作計劃的一部分,是蘇聯建造的第一個軌道空間站(蘇聯解體后歸俄羅斯)。據統計,它實際在軌工作的十多年時間里,共發生近2000處故障,其中70%的外體遭到腐蝕。

  那么,究竟是什么原因造成太空中航天材料的腐蝕失效呢?“嫦娥”奔月途中,到底會面臨怎樣嚴峻的考驗呢?我們首先從太空中的環境說起。

  其實,太空的真實環境遠沒有科幻電影中描述的那般美好,到處都存在著人類肉眼所看不見的宇宙輻射。它既包括宇宙大爆炸后所殘留的熱輻射,也包括其他天體向外釋放的電磁波、高能粒子甚至是宇宙射線。它們對人體的危害可以說是致命的。但由于地球磁場與大氣層對宇宙輻射的偏折和吸收作用,才能保證人類在地球上的正常生活。可是,一旦脫離兩者的保護,完全暴露在這種強輻射環境中,即便是穿著厚重的宇航服,也不能完全避免宇宙輻射對人體的傷害。當然,面對太空中如此高強度的輻射,航天器也會“深受其害”。

  其中,太陽所釋放的紫外線輻射是引起航天器腐蝕失效的原因之一。盡管紫外線只占太陽光的5%左右,但是能量卻很大。太空中,由于缺少地球磁場及大氣層的“保護屏障”,航天器表面的高分子材料在吸收紫外線后會引發聚合物的自我氧化、降解。另外,紫外線中的單個光子所具有的能量足以破壞聚合物間的化學鍵,使其斷裂、交聯,從而導致聚合物材料性能的急劇下降。因此,為了盡可能的削弱宇宙輻射對航天器的影響,人類航天任務的發射甚至會刻意避開太陽耀斑活動頻繁的時間周期。

  此外,當航天器剛剛脫離地球表面大氣層的保護,首先接觸的便是低地球軌道環境(距離地球200-700km),該區域所處的殘余大氣中,氧含量約占總組分的80%。眾所周知,氧元素是造成材料腐蝕加速的重要條件。而在太陽短波輻射的光致分解作用下,氧分子轉變為高活性的原子氧,由于處于高真空及極低的氣體總壓狀態下,氧原子與其他粒子發生碰撞的幾率很小,導致氧原子很難再次復合成分子態。當高速運行的航天器與原子氧發生劇烈的摩擦、碰撞時,航天器表面的聚合物材料會發生高溫氧化反應,使其電學、光學以及機械性能等方面發生退化,甚至會引起明顯的剝蝕效應,嚴重影響航天器的運行安全。

  在“嫦娥”的太空旅行中,除了要面臨宇宙輻射及原子氧的威脅外,還需要接受極為“苛刻”的溫度挑戰。自宇宙大爆炸起,太空中的溫度便開始逐漸降低,在經歷了150多億年的演變后,目前的太空正處于極寒的環境中,平均溫度只有約-270.3℃。并且,真空環境中,由于缺少空氣的傳熱和散熱,航天器表面受陽光直接照射的一面,其溫度將高達100℃以上,而陽光照射不到的一面,溫度則可低至-200℃。這種極端的溫度條件和大幅度的冷熱交變會影響材料的應力,并可能造成航天器“外衣”的斷裂、分層甚至脆化,縮短其安全服役壽命。

  通過上面的介紹,我們可以發現,在如此復雜的太空環境中,航天器的腐蝕根本無法避免。并且,有關數據顯示,一架航天飛機的維修成本甚至遠高于其制作成本和發射成本。因此,采用科學的手段抑制航天器在太空中的腐蝕問題勢在必行。

  首先便是選擇和發展耐熱、耐極低溫、耐熱震、抗疲勞、抗腐蝕的高性能材料,世界各國的科學家也正為此努力探索。此外,結合不同材料的用途及其實際服役環境,采用合適的表面處理技術顯得更為重要。因為性能優異的防護涂層不僅可以提高航天材料的功能性,包括耐高溫、隔熱、抗腐蝕、抗氧化、抗輻射等,同時也可以延長航天器的使用壽命,節省維修成本。然而,與地面裝備表面防護不同的是,由于有機涂層在真空環境中會出現放氣、老化脫落等一系列問題,航天材料一般不會使用有機涂層進行防腐,而主要采用的表面技術包括化學/電化學沉積、化學/電化學氧化、無機涂層以及特種薄膜制備等等。

  鎂合金,作為地球上最輕的金屬結構材料,擁有比強度高、導電性強、電磁屏蔽性好等優點,在航天領域的使用上具有先天的優勢。為了實現減重的目的,我們熟知的神州、天宮、嫦娥等系列航天器中,均大量使用鎂合金。

  以此次發射的“嫦娥四號”探測器為例,其中,探月雷達、月球車巡視器、著陸器上許多重要電子設備的箱體結構所采用的就是鎂合金,主要利用其減重、導電及優異的電磁屏蔽性能,可以有效地削弱外界電磁場對核心電路系統的干擾。但鎂合金化學性質活潑,耐蝕性差,甚至在地面存放期間便會出現嚴重的腐蝕。因此,必須采用合理的表面處理方式,在滿足其導電性及電磁屏蔽性能的基礎上,有效提高其耐腐蝕能力。

  中國科學院金屬研究所在這方面做了很多工作,科研團隊自主研發的鎂合金鍍層具有防腐、導電、電磁屏蔽等多功能性,滿足了航天器若干的使用要求,并在天宮、嫦娥等多個型號的航天器上使用。

  “嫦娥”的奔月成功只是人類探索太空的階段性勝利,宇宙中仍有無數未知的奧秘等待著人類去揭曉。在未來的探索道路中,可能會暴露出更多太空中的“腐蝕”問題。讓我們攜手并進,砥礪前行,一步一步追尋屬于我們的“太空夢”。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

凤凰VIPwww.www.fh7577.com www.246437.com | www.596810.com | www.771492.com | www.245095.com | www.761317.com | www.365121.cc | www.736635.com | www.1892.vip | www.97575.cc | www.5335.biz | www.770.tv | www.63001.com | www.206104.com | www.604979.com | www.618687.com | 424724.com | 中国福利彩票www.6364k.com | www.67861.cc | www.181339.com | www.874763.com | www.861083.com | 308291.com | 604466.com | www.05gg.com | www.017308.com | www.057800.com | www.102703.com | www.371925.com | 158113.com | 网易彩票www.074wy.com | www.5547.vip | www.679117.com | www.791135.com | www.918807.com | www.976465.com | 111452.com | www.452380.com | www.565196.com | www.702703.com | www.t49.org | 021316.com | www.pr16.com | www.1408.pw | www.93398.com | www.606830.com | www.069078.com | www.343353.com | www.cp8708.com | www.879689.com | www.855237.com | www.sr38.com | www.02uo.com | www.398473.com | www.801872.com | www.822571.com | www.035355.com | www.0491.cn | www.os42.com | www.jz69.com | www.17292.cc | 265762.com | www.857160.com | www.52109.com | www.292127.com | www.333294.com | www.458833.com | www.505296.com | www.559448.com | www.07pd.com | www.3786.in | www.881326.com | www.56oc.com | www.777676.com | www.8lr.cc | www.7228.in | www.445068.com | www.492368.com | www.620773.com | www.28913.com | www.37571.com | www.236896.com | www.425578.com | www.98719.com | www.9627.net | www.4976.me | 770428.com | www.334612.com | www.613843.com | www.850937.com | www.555233.com | www.cp2939.com | www.750778.com | www.915004.com | 251969.com | 924118.com | www.3jh.cc | 923606.com | www.146422.com | www.787677.com | www.53we.com | www.9695.biz | 万利www.32123z.com | www.p19.cc | www.024202.com | www.075738.com | www.507167.com | 3050.biz | www.961797.com | www.550538.com | www.9877.cn | www.19104.com | www.0159.pw | www.50ef.com | www.049433.com | www.97950.com | www.234114.com | www.502331.com | www.92qr.com | www.en93.com | www.sk83.com | www.3502.com | www.547902.com | www.45cr.com | www.k34.cc | www.594559.com | www.036268.com | www.85et.com | www.ca91.com | www.nn80.com | www.ws54.com | www.yl88.com | www.ua12.com | www.954835.com | www.913738.com | www.758935.com | www.708677.com | 969429.com | 5819.biz | www.079083.com | www.129205.com | www.065315.com | www.227748.com | www.297982.com | www.s34.com | 2099.pw | 687893.com | www.1565.org | www.6710.in | www.8679.org | www.52116.com | www.217128.com | www.14dx.com | 579715.com | 659649.com | 499089.com | 761154.com | www.cp5788.com | www.14da.com | www.258182.com | www.55rk.com | www.0740.me | www.230423.com | www.466449.com | 228802.cc | 630183.com | www.fl43.com | www.059140.com | www.116203.com | www.064518.com | www.80445.com | www.576243.com | www.461883.com | www.364960.com | www.471377.com | 331943.com | 203862.com | 502912.com | www.kf93.com | www.6722.bid | www.hq45.com | www.fn49.com | 637061.com | www.71mn.com | www.hz27.com | www.14702.com | www.89859.cc | www.29bg.com | www.0566.bid | www.836688.com | www.889141.com | www.726312.com | www.905411.com | www.773074.com | www.794600.com | www.96204.cc | 450996.com | www.45698.cc | www.7625.xyz | www.1681.org | www.7984.vip | www.657928.com | www.626891.com | 500彩票www.aa3126.com | www.91391.cc | www.1155.live | 198371.com | 984929.com | 072057.com | 17784.com | www.320032.com | www.644123.com | www.995498.com | www.979007.com | www.969406.com | www.66il.com | www.2pi.com | www.4375.com | www.97td.com | www.06547.com | www.19qk.com | www.66716.cc | www.222056.com | www.366775.com | www.560110.com | 06sl.com | www.228628.com | www.773251.com | www.471010.com | www.532672.com | www.663584.com | www.827022.com | www.863744.com | 304422.com | www.20vd.com | www.96632.com | www.94917.com | www.52214.com | www.204513.com | www.858383.com | www.659106.com | 500万彩票www.665879.com | www.124280.com | www.276819.com | www.325611.com | www.324755.com | www.984583.com | www.887608.com | www.6726.top | www.58973.cc | www.416492.com | www.844997.com | www.ba60.com | www.512120.com | 957429.com | 945198.com | 99368.com--86939.com | www.837224.com | yv49.com | 8415.vip | 汇丰彩票www.977hf.com | www.yb06.com | www.wn09.com | www.535020.com | 947615.com | www.698291.com | www.712408.com | www.ru72.com | www.p18.xyz | www.ds13.com | www.8103.org | www.08578.com | www.613105.com | 180079.com | 6810.me | www.g91.net | www.7670.vip | 950968.com | 983064.com | 万利www.32123i.com | www.cp9557.com | www.140015.com | www.778818.cc | www.885169.com | www.952845.com | www.952334.com | www.893566.com | www.983803.com | www.901690.com | www.310125.com | www.373296.com | www.qp10.com | www.85813.com | www.566190.com | www.485088.com | www.586565.com | www.458338.com | www.634509.com | 165800.com | www.916850.com | www.781204.com | www.172131.com | www.8499.com | www.9292.site | www.398.hk | www.bz46.com | www.328959.com | 262195.com | 500彩票www.324877.com | 904713.com | 天朝彩票www.58181.cc | 648174.com | 500彩票www.50051j.com | www.53gw.com | www.110593.com | www.506122.com | www.521616.com | www.002383.com | www.920574.com | www.838631.com | 390851.com | 904811.com | 966424.com | www.cp5618.com | 964393.com | www.mtc6.com | 33189.com | cp291.com | 009219.com | www.954444.com | www.006762.com | 778016.com | www.9226.vip | www.088753.com | www.47338.com | www.89942.com | 310579.com | 979487.com | www.786381.com | www.041247.com | www.7862.com | www.89207.com | www.05959.cc | www.027120.com | www.634896.com | www.kf10.com | www.982550.com | www.fu0.com | www.hp04.com | www.479966.com | www.654245.com | 748234.com | www.110060.com | 354532.com | www.69012.com | www.278723.com | www.160761.com | www.677532.com | www.151642.com | www.488181.com | www.32171.cc | www.004660.com | www.1024.com | 808344.com | www.g48.org | www.ve40.com | www.39.biz | www.881592.com | www.615777.com | 252834.com | www.150390.com | www.617519.com | 866990.com | 654078.com | www.x50.online | www.59590.com | www.020156.com | www.068686.com | www.it69.com | www.87su.com | www.ph16.com | www.083097.com | 624896.com | 649256.com | www.7383.cc | www.nw45.com | www.754636.com | www.20230.com | www.049067.com | 609046.com | 141559.com | www.346428.com | ja93.com | 100620.com | 750809.com | www.970889.com | www.110463.com | www.288991.com | www.277371.com | www.351595.com | www.5368.club | www.4930.vip | www.30af.com | www.00580.com | www.5429.top | www.18601.com | www.ny76.com | www.39792.com | www.379779.com | www.826279.com | www.673555.com | www.582972.com | 623892.com | 194755.com | www.508703.com | 480648.com | www.15396.cc | www.82247.com | www.129557.com | www.707997.com | www.672621.com | 100422.com | 024829.com | 030901.com | 752110.com | www.799773.com | www.139814.com | www.676308.com | www.mr16.com | www.84lx.com | www.92aq.com | www.tf26.com | www.n74.club | www.807942.com | www.nf59.com | www.419499.com | www.564001.com | www.777365.com | www.967801.com | www.047655.com | www.545184.com | www.528192.com | www.679813.com | www.919613.com | www.997553.com | www.x47.net | www.vp83.com | www.43qj.com | www.640518.com | www.613025.com | www.134938.com | www.8985.top | www.91jy.cc | www.870765.com | 146559.com | 975947.com | www.149865.com | www.526168.com | www.300829.com | www.23408.cc | www.013130.com | www.020596.com | www.400646.com | www.896545.com | 70691.com | www.jm44.com | www.534560.com | www.335578.com | www.50240.com | www.08042.com | www.75150.cc | www.754998.com | 507519.com | 577351.com | www.6393.cn | www.131492.com | www.78sw.com | www.440.in | www.190390.com | www.266126.com | www.691760.com | www.854969.com | www.559548.com | www.554566.com | www.365139.com | www.866978.com | www.877271.com | www.791399.com | www.677681.com | www.834654.com | www.046060.com | www.228613.com | www.59519.com | www.677908.com | www.9120.loan | 470360.com | www.202202.com | www.245230.com | www.300053.cc | www.326310.com | www.69780.com | www.qj78.com | www.587.date | www.993736.com | www.317593.com | www.928779.com | www.821877.com | www.724701.com | www.650672.com | www.548110.com | www.386408.com | www.191159.com | www.002377.com | www.7655.loan | www.88xk.com | www.ws29.com | www.163711.com | www.286939.com | 556364.com | www.026831.com | www.129953.com | www.982231.com | 560006.com | 532869.com | www.591934.com | www.07059.com | www.0025.online | www.6125.xyz | www.15wl.com | www.317824.com | www.058094.com | www.029237.com | www.260538.com | www.678234.cc | www.955246.com | www.vv29.com | www.2136.org | www.2so.com | www.k19.link | www.51xh.com | www.673.org | www.529314.com | www.113461.com | www.550645.com | www.969576.com | www.94zc.com | www.941618.com | www.286156.com | www.174878.com | 978756.com | 011473.com | www.311735.com | www.337569.com | 967482.com | 994815.com | www.84ax.com | www.vx23.com | www.633707.com | www.77nt.cc | www.6606.cn | www.63448.com | www.mj97.com | www.995453.com | www.825530.com | 7169.biz | 972642.com | www.977473.com | www.950059.com | www.006923.com | www.907208.com | www.973837.com | www.805512.com | www.692826.com | www.398229.com | www.385096.com | www.150893.com | www.105906.com | www.173357.com | www.85387.cc | www.14fi.com | www.31fz.com | 178667.com | www.604886.com | www.697990.com | www.026497.com | www.8538.biz | www.090931.com | www.92223.com | www.9728.cm | www.771139.com | www.68717.cc | www.111646.com | 657402.com | www.169382.com | www.250258.com | 221488.com | www.368186.com | 102323.com | www.99.me | www.775776.com | www.627365.cc | www.315670.com | www.925362.com | www.0988.bid | www.15488.cc | www.r99.cn | www.182292.com | www.285339.com | www.306637.com | www.756238.com | www.273345.com | www.110876.com | www.152808.com | www.661165.com | 804626.com | www.775660.com | www.963494.com | www.0948.vip | 947892.com | www.975442.com | www.550218.com | www.72976.cc | 417627.com | www.146930.com | www.709090.com | www.918063.com | www.99376.com | www.437299.com | 909982.com | www.368817.com | www.167567.com | www.781583.com | www.780237.com | www.772990.com | cpa8.cc | 958404.com | 347646.com | 487451.com | 367348.com | www.086985.com | www.173560.com | www.122987.com | 538004.com | www.461562.com | www.110647.com | www.48065.com | www.22488.cc | 网易彩票www.26163a.com | www.dl65.com | www.ay28.com | www.pi97.com | 博友彩www.155792.com | 087077.com | 774263.com | www.841983.com | www.691521.com | www.507529.com | www.513960.com | 443605.com | 138977.com | www.931895.com | 72874.com | www.4678.pw | www.581379.com | www.518046.com | www.407558.com | www.318256.com | www.180111.cc | www.501171.com | www.268872.com | www.55316.cc | www.880726.com | www.975439.com | www.855337.com | 068705.com | 894218.com | www.pj50.com | www.816664.com | 971914.com | 972446.com | www.83aa.com | www.t79.club | www.hl8.com | 234264.com | 240450.com | www.971401.com | www.744052.com | www.553129.com | www.286735.com | www.058212.com | www.6474.me | www.51bz.com | www.lw40.com | www.cp581.com | www.hk9.cc | 博乐彩票www.35918v.com | 18222.com | www.975402.com | www.715283.com | www.453849.com | www.135671.com | www.58523.cc | www.3778.in | www.46vf.com | 七星乐www.249711.com | 034076.com | 643891.com | www.996600.com | www.766182.com | www.513512.com | www.262620.com | www.99273.com | www.1639.me | www.gg01.com | ri70.com | 437811.com | www.999555.com | www.621323.com | www.539946.com | www.211199.com | 527081.com | www.76ry.com | www.dj74.cc | www.88nu.com | 205929.com | www.22uh.com | www.717390.com | www.814433.com | 博乐彩票www.188737.com | 943933.com | www.511882.com | www.380377.com | www.686360.com | www.797660.com | www.3962.org | www.9398.cm | www.30af.com | 奔驰彩票www.34207.com | 500彩票www.50788i.com | 大赢家彩票www.5086e.com | 796034.com | www.954470.com | www.9272.biz | www.77fw.com | www.882395.com | www.694307.com | www.cp5356.com | 596281.com | www.123846.com | www.309298.com | www.505370.com | www.191227.com | 450766.com | 440799.com | www.887853.com | www.633124.com | www.32499.com | www.736673.com | www.260986.com | 0253.com | 801991.com | www.63818.com | www.098002.com | www.574035.com | www.nl89.com | www.405612.com | www.9439.top | www.551958.com | www.318551.com | www.178489.cc | www.218208.com | www.349404.com | www.357128.com | www.678926.com | www.1077.org | www.13ir.com | www.608991.com | www.543567.com | www.263589.com | www.044481.com | www.300979.com | www.555053.com | 436822.com | www.994002.com | www.088885.cc | www.741010.com | www.577140.com | 554613.com | 122417.com | 54455.com | www.977528.com | 746178.com | www.fi69.com | www.os95.com | www.619038.com | www.939461.com | www.966612.com | www.802660.com | 456045.com | 953490.com | 757822.com | cai7700.com | 576260.com | www.5855.in | 431728.com | www.599023.com | www.540130.com | www.099851.com | www.402491.com | www.785864.com | www.559768.com | www.844485.com | www.806290.com | 630345.com | 973045.com | www.958085.com | www.878796.com | www.33354.com | www.06078.com | www.6220.vip | www.081165.com | www.11779.com | www.38yy.com | 932080.com | 402191.com | www.939145.com | www.715539.com | www.448882.com | www.177633.com | www.77209.com | www.3853.biz | www.pz50.cc | 35699.com | 126349.com | www.932587.com | www.442055.com | www.153823.com | www.26439.com | www.80rm.com | 彩乐乐www.cll168.com | www.555908.com | www.389874.com | 027045.com | 954143.com | www.990612.com | www.772116.com | www.588376.com | www.333619.com | www.461369.com | www.458611.com | www.239263.com | www.225759.com | www.144188.com | www.361755.com | www.go02.com | 9号彩票www.75679.com | 535380.com | 698976.com | 249566.com | 535347.com | 6869.hk | www.303578.com | www.237945.com | www.190612.com | www.025230.com | www.8814.cm | www.72yd.com | 大赢家彩票www.683037.com | 277.cc | 246379.com | www.791882.com | www.981493.com | www.837581.com | 352744.com | 564900.com | www.07671.com | 241744.com | 972304.com | www.985784.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.860705.com | www.5818.biz | www.75ob.com | 17yu.cc | 904630.com | www.821662.com | 849602.com | www.986678.com | www.669395.com | 690275.com | www.706929.com | www.207483.com | www.002345.com | www.2258.site | www.fq63.com | www.2141.vip | www.855572.com | www.661837.com | www.26es.com | www.3268.cc | www.994378.com | 029230.com | 盛彩网www.41518y.com | www.nq16.com | www.9667.in | www.066.la | www.729858.com | www.1459.vip | www.8822.cm | www.9523.online | www.89ej.com | www.591810.com | 500彩票www.50080r.com | 901798.com | www.912098.com | www.657671.com | www.636716.com | www.592862.com | www.302880.com | www.629942.com | www.992017.com | www.691225.com | www.691543.com | www.752691.com | www.460688.com | www.269575.com | www.057383.com | www.504899.com | www.236055.com | www.65341.com | www.156353.com | www.357292.com | www.282946.com | www.33208.com | www.359826.com | www.813295.com | 大赢家彩票www.393411.com | 511840.com | 959041.com | 984320.com | www.903363.com | www.642125.com | www.8843.net | www.1278.com | www.439178.com | www.675917.com | www.660721.com | 7865.cn | 631902.com | www.826425.com | www.732205.com | www.07aw.com | www.128100.com | www.947315.com | www.7716.cc | www.9635.cn | www.65ie.com | www.195711.com | www.592858.com | www.986661.com | www.700662.com | www.590057.com | www.56vz.com | 231309.com | www.026113.com | www.730583.com | www.415235.com | www.wj2.cc | www.664246.com | www.616961.com | www.317567.com | www.890489.com | www.623387.com | www.574131.com | www.220245.com | www.62206.com | www.184987.com | 198047.com | www.859695.com | www.604579.com | www.jl69.com | www.22sx.com | 341368.com | www.269817.com | www.35239.cc | www.1375.org | www.9006.cc | www.697.cc | www.08655.com | www.65mz.com | 爱彩乐www.752918.com | 539408.com | 271176.com | www.948891.com | www.728400.com | www.79ed.com | PK彩票www.534554.com | 296781.com | 980053.com | www.094441.com | 848407.com | www.967172.com | www.639284.com | www.921306.com | www.586887.com | www.1156.pw | www.185.live | www.cai316.com | 028257.com | 293093.com | 556543.com | www.791205.com | www.928096.com | www.66923.com | www.753.com | www.59wm.com | www.q44.in | 345027.com | 773865.com | www.948612.com | 139674.com | www.890511.com | 423794.com | www.850159.com | 090309.com | www.921128.com | www.706890.com | 777208.com | 08817.com | PK彩票www.8499f.com | 688013.com | www.10766.com | www.653258.com | www.oy3.com | 119412.com | 079612.com | www.768616.com | www.969413.com | www.802639.com | www.950089.com | www.553830.com | www.251606.com | www.366592.com | www.630223.com | www.364150.com | www.121703.com | www.15823.com | www.zu77.com | 782291.com | www.167739.com | www.281782.com | www.017232.com | www.4854.vip | www.7041.com | www.173828.com | www.211369.com | www.736835.com | www.987902.com | www.620021.com | www.8732.top | www.ov84.com | 天天中www.0ttz.com | www.426995.com | www.129223.com | www.599888.com | www.632506.com | www.bi32.com | www.lm00.com | www.137703.com | www.439320.com | www.111603.com | www.689472.com | www.152560.com | www.062809.com | www.79577.com | www.8390.vip | www.583870.com | www.301863.com | www.126190.com | www.019888.cc | www.807696.com | www.958399.com | www.698164.com | 075608.com | 258880.com | 609050.com | www.871993.com | 576049.com | www.943376.com | www.974999.cc | www.657403.com | www.674228.com | www.352744.com | www.283675.com | www.93205.com | www.8529.com | www.bs33.com | 145225.com | 810861.com | www.751632.com | www.818529.com | www.8107.vip | www.822582.com | 305987.com | www.954013.com | www.958801.com | www.675863.com | www.470766.com | 901369.com | www.8513.net | www.p23.xyz | www.321244.com | www.074693.com | www.04303.com | www.128004.com | 易盈彩票www.7793c.com | 146881.com | www.972694.com | www.jx65.com | www.139534.com | www.9118.biz | www.cp2206.com | 005463.com | www.753848.com | www.424622.com | www.143577.com | www.038849.com | www.52235.com | www.213249.com | www.42414.com | www.14bu.com | 267996.com | www.sl43.com | www.0407.cm | www.ia62.com | 941632.com | www.861817.com | www.629122.com | www.280881.com | www.04df.com | 900269.com | www.cp5582.com | 832450.com | www.91499.cc | www.634.live | www.788152.com | www.2648.org | www.8917.live | www.3335.in | www.106667.com | www.591443.com | www.731567.com | www.307275.com | www.53739.cc | www.069199.com | www.5632.cc | 519895.com | 6871.biz | www.785653.com | www.933745.com | www.699300.com | www.820010.com | www.555308.com | www.222141.com | www.047211.com | www.0087.cc | www.iz5.com | 771214.com | www.5120.net | 8号彩票www.60108q.com | www.0778.cm | www.95719.com | www.127971.com | www.730626.com | www.373350.com | www.620158.com | www.259970.com | www.93hz.com | www.nj79.com | www.tg85.com | 158709.com | www.842339.com | www.430188.com | www.41bj.com | 055121.com | www.85zv.com | www.13080.com | www.618958.com | www.717926.com | www.768200.com | www.490052.com | www.678645.com | www.225199.com | www.08263.com | www.796306.com | www.949724.com | 157331.com | www.30440.com | www.67ol.com | www.hf79.com | www.36997.com | www.9453.xyz | www.mt44.cc | www.0294.cm | 870493.com | www.191723.com | www.566727.com | www.4576.live | www.dl49.com | www.285884.com | www.038887.com | www.036536.com | www.9252.biz | www.78xj.com | www.9917.top | www.d33.me | www.28252.com | www.975296.com | www.575919.com | www.131932.com | www.316256.com | www.246642.com | www.62692.cc | www.b30.shop | www.gu48.com | www.zv94.com | 500彩票www.51515z.com | 273135.com | www.9853.cn | www.764933.com | www.546234.com | m.411379.com | www.bs48.com | www.336600.cc | www.353994.com | www.265281.com | 488669.com | www.927308.com | www.882578.com | www.597252.com | www.937539.com | www.522284.com | www.213847.com | www.395931.com | www.646774.com | 934611.com | www.932800.com | www.755746.com | www.804977.com | www.322687.com | www.205712.com | www.00147.com | 快彩www.81678x.com | www.951455.com | www.862893.com | www.961783.com | www.710628.com | www.444793.com | www.oz28.com | 789105.com | www.771175.com | www.392249.com | www.174141.com | www.866798.com | 471354.com | www.798298.com | www.669561.com | www.322446.com | www.011473.com | www.386771.com | www.576443.com | www.78538.com | 689660.com | www.369484.com | www.726543.com | 794840.com | 026823.com | www.815025.com | 217597.com | www.839584.com | www.650511.com | www.165316.com | www.7882.cn | 984751.com | www.974598.com | www.28966.com | www.0547.pw | www.yr80.com | www.mc53.com | www.45wa.com | 491207.com | www.948228.com | www.513368.com | www.510855.com | www.079822.com | www.79oq.com | www.390558.com | www.233734.com | www.08015.com | www.046464.com | www.477.date | 好运彩吧www.096308.com | www.990150.com | www.635837.com | www.633422.com | 万历彩票www.77114k.com | www.974321.com | www.859287.com | www.534311.com | www.150302.com | www.73qg.com | 761403.com | www.820308.com | www.368819.com | www.077729.com | www.4040.cm | www.yj80.com | 768440.com | www.8009.link | 746555.com | 969481.com | 财神网www.29277f.com | 015903.com | www.617991.com | www.817367.com | 012567.com | www.681875.com | www.254555.com | www.8702.cn | 博友彩www.707602.com | www.7428.vip | www.cai78.cc | www.911662.com | www.623028.com | www.949681.com | 930790.com | www.631114.com | www.245883.com | www.40639.com | www.rv20.com | www.cp9585.com | ui34.com | www.644116.com | www.872439.com | www.979977.com | www.559550.com | www.067590.com | www.5882.xyz | www.388765.com | www.115248.com | www.1471.top | www.wd39.com | 944518.com | www.z70.net | 易彩网www.36166q.com | www.154655.com | www.299875.com | www.52082.com | 036367.com | www.701525.com | www.87756.cc | www.002488.com | 886419.com | www.989849.com | 3055.biz | www.597784.com | www.165936.com | www.081821.com | www.876.pw | 410618.com | www.780116.com | 33225.com | 盛大彩票www.an966.com | 8号彩票www.81520x.com | www.916077.com | www.417373.com | www.062194.com | www.81ej.com | www.64zh.com | 092643.com | www.62520.com | www.619300.com | www.31607.com | 大赢家彩票www.599505.com | www.863570.com | www.363077.com | www.lj17.com | www.az46.com | www.957993.com | www.679819.com | 325289.com | 730097.com | www.781054.com | www.wz79.cc | www.93321.cc | www.95625.cc | www.lh91.com | www.494160.com | www.866145.com | www.252605.com | 705392.com | www.007.la | www.s16.cc | 56uz.com | www.826320.com | 351435.com | www.801643.com | www.601541.com | www.185566.com | www.324010.com | www.9564.cm | www.678604.com | 059261.com | www.036229.com | www.lu31.com | 831274.com | www.838175.com | www.096138.com | www.0885.wang | www.806505.com | www.69ym.com | 110741.com | www.835503.com | 704561.com | www.64403.com | www.643752.com | www.jz33.cc | www.112102.com | www.42016.com | www.yf63.com | www.9451.com | 福彩网www.60007i.com | www.760790.com | www.144343.com | www.ey76.com | 365680.com | www.849499.com | www.449590.com | www.nq7.com | 佰萬彩票www.160326.com | www.904110.com | www.9685.biz | www.030971.com | www.533629.com | www.1688.bid | www.19th.com | www.119958.com | www.09no.com | www.1cs.com | www.pl24.com | 佰萬彩票www.982pk.com | www.953804.com | www.678656.com | 492788.com | 0254.cc | www.750507.com | 220501.com | www.04ig.com | www.kl83.com | www.987837.com | www.522557.com | www.317348.com | 370679.com | 586910.com | www.750027.com | www.566829.com | www.54534.cc | 好彩www.60123y.com | 557889.com | www.813487.com | 548233.com | www.387637.com | www.126740.com | www.91399.com | www.568221.com | www.110936.com | www.71229.cc | www.579676.com | www.12440.com | 5号彩www.585hc.com | 209037.com | www.435287.com | www.85366.cc | www.6424.cn | 500彩票www.202403.com | 365511.com | www.84277.com | lb4.cc | www.866836.com | www.50uf.com | www.09sy.com | 084460.com | www.583230.com | www.715279.com | www.328072.com | www.530072.com | www.0067800.com | www.802779.com | www.664847.com | 954404.com | 323654.com | www.888916.com | www.965940.com | www.00tk.com | 819303.com | www.735774.com | www.271910.com | www.49496.com | www.yn88.cc | 95tg.com | 568207.com | www.872824.com | www.wz62.cc | www.eg17.com | 642452.com | www.785598.com | www.697532.com | www.891136.com | www.345174.com | www.942611.com | www.49zk.com | 978854.com | www.815633.com | www.335229.com | www.8713.org | 099646.com | www.922726.com | www.396217.com | www.232867.com | www.6106.vip | 539934.com | 570029.com | www.653865.com | www.359247.com | 562170.com | www.190916.com | www.964763.com | www.389160.com | www.228797.com | www.8552.biz |